How Do Photovoltaic (PV) Commercial Solar Panels Work?

Photovoltaic (PV) commercial solar panels have revolutionized the way businesses harness energy, providing a sustainable and renewable alternative to traditional power sources. This article aims to delve into the intricacies of how these solar panels work, transforming sunlight into electricity for various commercial applications.

Photovoltaic Effect


At the heart of PV commercial solar panels is the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon where certain materials generate an electric current when exposed to sunlight. Most commercial solar panels utilize crystalline silicon as the primary material for this purpose. When photons from sunlight strike the surface of the solar cells, they energize electrons within the silicon atoms, causing them to become mobile and create an electric current.

Composition of Solar Cells

Silicon Wafers
Solar cells within commercial solar panels are typically made of silicon wafers. Silicon, a semiconductor, is chosen for its ability to conduct electricity when exposed to sunlight. These wafers are treated to create a positive and negative layer, forming the basic structure of a solar cell.

Conductive Layers
Above and below the silicon wafer, conductive layers are added to facilitate the movement of electrons. The top layer is usually treated to allow photons to penetrate, while the bottom layer acts as a reflector, bouncing back photons that did not get absorbed on the first pass.

Generation of Direct Current (DC)

As sunlight hits the solar cells, the energized electrons create a flow of direct current (DC) electricity. This direct current is then captured and channeled out of the solar panel for further use. However, most commercial applications, including businesses and homes, operate on alternating current (AC). To make the energy generated by solar panels compatible, an inverter is employed to convert DC into AC.

Inverter Functionality

The inverter is a crucial component in the functioning of PV commercial solar panels. It converts the DC electricity generated by the solar cells into the AC electricity required for most commercial and residential applications. The inverter ensures that the electricity produced is compatible with the electrical grid and the appliances and machinery used by businesses.

Energy Distribution and Usage

Once the DC electricity is converted into AC by the inverter, it can be distributed for use within the commercial facility. The electricity generated by PV commercial solar panels can power a wide range of applications, from lighting and HVAC systems to machinery and computers, depending on the size and capacity of the solar panel installation.

Net Metering and Grid Connection

In many commercial setups, PV solar panels are connected to the electrical grid. Excess electricity generated during periods of high sunlight that is not immediately used by the business can be fed back into the grid. This process, known as net metering, allows businesses to receive credits for the surplus electricity they contribute, further enhancing the economic viability of solar panel installations.


In conclusion, the operation of PV commercial solar panels involves harnessing the photovoltaic effect in silicon wafers to generate a flow of direct current electricity. The inverter then plays a pivotal role in converting this DC electricity into the alternating current required for most commercial applications. The generated electricity can power various aspects of a business, contributing to energy efficiency and sustainability.

For information about PV commercial solar panels and to explore options from a reliable supplier, feel free to contact us. Our team is dedicated to providing top-quality solar solutions tailored to meet the specific needs of your business.